Antibodies are a large family of glycoproteins produced by specialized cells of the vertebrate immune system in response to foreign molecules (antigens). The interaction of an antibody with an antigen is the foundation upon which all immunochemical techniques have been developed. In confocal microscopy, such techniques are often extremely useful, enabling the researcher to localize antigens in cell cultures and tissue sections by utilizing antibodies labeled with fluorescent dyes that can be readily visualized with a confocal microscope. Also, in order to obtain a stronger signal, oftentimes an unlabeled primary antibody is used in conjunction with a labeled secondary antibody that binds to it. The resources provided in this section include many leading and emerging producers and distributors of primary and secondary antibodies.
- Abcam - The official Abcam Ltd. mission is "to build the largest catalog of the best antibodies in the world," and consequently, the collection of products they offer is extensive. Monoclonal and polyclonal primary and secondary antibodies suited for most any research experiment can be found on their website by browsing through product descriptions subdivided by types and applications or by utilizing the helpful search function. Abcam's website also offers a detailed antibody guide, protocols, technical help for customers, and a FAQ.
- ABR-Affinity BioReagents - In 1989, Affinity BioReagents, Inc. was founded in order to help bring useful immunological reagents created by university researchers to the global biological research community. Since that time, ABR has emerged as a key manufacturer and supplier of research reagents, antibodies, and custom scientific services. The company's product list includes a wide range of monoclonal and polyclonal primary and secondary antibodies, and custom polyclonal antibody production and modified protein antibody production are included among their various on-demand services.
- Antibody Resource Page - The Antibody Resource Page is a comprehensive guide to antibody research and supplies. The extensive collection of links provided by the website is well organized, making it simple for users to find various types of antibody suppliers and services, educational resources, databases, software, news, journals, and books. The Antibody Resource Page also features an antibody gallery, which is a repository of antibody images donated by researchers or companies, and a FAQ.
- Biodesign International - Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are two of the main product areas of Biodesign International, which is an industry leader in their development and manufacture. Based in Maine, Biodesign also supplies custom antibody services as well as purified antigens and assay development reagents to life science researchers and pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and diagnostic companies. Application information can be found on Biodesign's website and online ordering is available to shipping locations within the United States.
- Chemicon International - Over 3,000 monoclonal and polyclonal primary and secondary antibodies are made available to the research community by Chemicon International, Inc., a company that has been in operation since 1981. Chemicon can also tailor antibody development to meet the specific needs of individual projects or researchers. In addition to a wealth of product information, the company's website offers a significant amount of useful introductory information about antibodies and antibody applications, as well as a section on antibodies in the news, which covers many of the latest developments in the field.
- Covance Research Products - Covance Research Products, Inc. is a leading provider of purpose-bred research animals to the biomedical industry that also supplies related products and services. The company offers custom antibody development as well as an established selection of primary and secondary antibodies for research, and their website includes protocols for immunofluorescence, western blot, and immunohistochemistry experiments, among others.
- DakoCytomation - A company formed in 2002 by the merger of Dako, a leading producer of cancer diagnostic agents, and the bioinstrumentation company Cytomation, Inc., DakoCytomation specializes in the manufacture of products that meet the diagnostic and research needs of health care professionals and scientists. Among their many products are monoclonal and polyclonal primary and secondary antibodies, antibody conjugates, EPOS conjugates, and ready-to-use antibody systems.
- Jackson Immuno Research Laboratories - The production and conjugation of affinity-purified, secondary antibodies and purified immunoglobins is the specialty of Jackson Immuno Research Laboratories, Inc., a company located in rural Pennsylvania and founded in 1982. Information provided online in the company's technical center makes choosing the best affinity-purified secondary antibody for specific applications a simple 5-step process.
- Kirkegaard and Perry Laboratories - Kirkegaard and Perry Laboratories, Inc. (KPL), which is a Maryland-based outfit that develops, produces, and markets immunochemicals for life science and in vitro diagnostics, was reportedly was the first company to commercialize affinity purified secondary antibodies. Today, KPL's wide array of high quality affinity purified antibodies and conjugates continues to be key among their selection of products. They also provide, however, immunoassay support reagents, immunohistochemistry stains and kits, nucleic acid labeling reagents and kits, protein detections systems and purification products, ELISA and blotting substrates, and custom and bulk services.
- Molecular Probes: Invitrogen Detection Technologies - A pioneer of fluorescence technology since 1975, Molecular Probes was acquired by Invitrogen Corporation in 2003 and now comprises the backbone of that company's detection technologies division. The spectrum of products sold under the Molecular Probes brand name is broad and includes an impressive array of monoclonal and polyclonal primary antibodies to specific proteins found in the cytoskeleton, mitochondria, and other cellular components. Most of these antibodies are particularly valuable for immunostaining applications that involve detection with fluorescent dye- or enzyme-conjugated secondary antibodies, which are also available in a wide selection.
- Quantum Dot Corporation: Invitrogen Detection Technologies - The Quantum Dot Corporation, which was founded in 1998 and acquired by Invitrogen in 2005, develops and provides biomolecular detection solutions in the form of products and services that employ quantum dot particles, miniscule semiconductor crystals that emit light in a range of colors. The level of brightness provided by Qdot technology has garnered it speedy and wide acceptance among life science researchers. The Quantum Dot line-up includes a collection of primary and secondary antibody conjugates for use in fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and similar applications.
- Research Diagnostics - Research Diagnostics, Inc., now known as the RDI division of Fitzgerald Industries, continues to distribute quality immunochemical products since its recent acquisition. RDI offers more than a thousand different primary and secondary antibodies produced by commercial firms and research centers around the world using both monoclonal and polyclonal techniques. Specification sheets for most products are available online.
- Roche Applied Science - Roche Applied Science has more than 50 years of experience producing reagents and systems for medical, biotechnological, and other life science industries. The well-established company offers a select collection of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies as well as contract manufacturing of monoclonal antibodies. The collection of FAQs, safety information, technical manuals, and links to various pertinent databases and bioscience journals provided on the company's website provide lots of useful information for Roche customers.
- Rockland Immunochemicals - A global biotechnology company, Rockland Immunochemicals produces a broad range of advanced research tools and products. The numerous antibodies produced by the company through monoclonal and polyclonal techniques are designed for individuals that perform high throughput screening, drug discovery, and life science research. In addition to Rockland's vast array of standard primary and secondary antibodies, the company offers custom production, purification, and conjugation of antibodies to meet the exact specifications of customers.
- Sigma-Aldrich - Sigma-Aldrich is a leader in the life science and high technology industries with offices located worldwide. Included among the company's many products is an extensive array of primary and secondary antibodies. The comprehensive site is well organized, allowing customers to locate specific products in a number of different ways, and offers a large quantity of quality antibody-related information, much of which can be found in the procedures index and in the site's technical support section.
- Upstate Group - Founded in 1988, Upstate provides cell signaling solutions to many major research institutions, pharmaceutical companies, and biotechnology companies. Upstate's antibody offerings include a wide range of primary antibodies as well as secondary antibodies conjugated to an array of enzymes and fluorophores. Helpful information on the company's website includes detailed product information, procedures and protocols, an archive of Upstate publications, and a schedule of upcoming meetings and conferences.